Accident. means an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down, in which ¾

(a)    a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of —

      (i)    being in the aircraft;                                       

     (ii)    direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft; or

    (iii)    direct exposure to jet blast,

except where the injuries arise from natural causes, are self-inflicted or inflicted by other persons, or where the person injured is a stowaway hiding outside the areas normally available to passengers and crew;

(b)    the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which —

      (i)    adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft; and

     (ii)    would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected component,

except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to a single engine, (including its cowlings or accessories), to propellers, wing tips, antennas, probes, vanes, tires, brakes, wheels, fairings, panels, landing gear doors,, windscreens, the aircraft skin (such as small dents or puncture holes), for minor damages to main rotor blades, tail rotor blades, landing gear, and those resulting from hail or bird strike (including holes in the radome); or

(c)    the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible;

Note 1. For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within thirty days of the date of the accident is classified by ICAO, as a fatal injury.

Note 2.  An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located.

Note 3. The type of unmanned aircraft system to be considered for investigation are only those with a design and/or operational approval.Note 4. The guidance for the determination of aircraft damage as accident is found in Attachment G of Annex 13 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Tenth Edition July 2010.

Incident. An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.

Serious incident. An incident involving circumstances indicating that there was a high probability of an accident and is associated with the operation of an aircraft which, in the case of a manned aircraft, takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons  have disembarked, or in the case of an unmanned aircraft, takes place between the time the aircraft is ready to move with the purpose of flight until such time it comes to rest at the end of the flight and the primary propulsion system is shut down.

Note 1.The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the result.Note2.  The types of incidents which are of main interest to the ICAO for accident prevention studies are listed in Appendix 4. (List of Examples of Serious Incidents).